COP26 final agreement: 196 countries agree to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and “phase down” coal

COP26 delegates have been negotiating for 2 weeks in Glasgow, UK

Jonne Roriz / Bloomberg by way of Getty Photographs

Practically 200 nations made an unprecedented and historic pledge on the COP26 local weather summit to speed up the top of fossil gasoline subsidies and cut back coal use, after India pushed for an eleventh hour intervention to weaken language on charcoal.

Above all, regardless of practically two weeks of negotiations greater than 24 hours late, the 196 nations gathered in Glasgow engaged to publish stricter 2030 local weather plans subsequent yr with the intention of avoiding harmful international warming.

COP26 guarantees are anticipated to see the Earth heat to 2.4 ° C this century, higher than the two.7 ° C predicted earlier than the summit, however nonetheless a rise that may result in excessive local weather impacts and see nations exceed their targets frequent of 1.5 ° C and nicely under 2 ° C.

The promise to ‘assessment and strengthen’ the brand new plans by the top of 2022 means the UK authorities internet hosting the summit can credibly declare to have achieved its aim of holding the 1.5 ° C goal alive. . It is a large time, says Chris Stark of Climate Change Committee, an unbiased group that advises the UK authorities.

New plans submitted subsequent yr to chop emissions by 2030 should be aligned with the 1.5 ° C goal, an necessary new requirement meaning governments that fail should justify why to their residents. Australia, Brazil and Indonesia are amongst many nations whose present plans are insufficient and can must be strengthened.

Till immediately, subsidies to coal and fossil fuels have by no means been explicitly talked about in 26 years of treaties and selections throughout the United Nations local weather negotiations, though coal is likely one of the predominant engines of the financial system. international warming and $ 5.9 trillion in subsidies for coal, oil and gas each year.

The wording of the ultimate choice textual content of COP26, now referred to as the Glasgow Local weather Pact, signifies that nations conform to “speed up efforts” on phasing out “inefficient” subsidies. In a dramatic last-minute intervention, minutes earlier than the end result was adopted, India proposed a watered-down model of the language on charcoal, switching to “phase-out” of coal relatively than “phase-out.”

Regardless of a number of nations expressing their anger on the last choice, the weaker textual content was formally adopted. COP26 President Alok Sharma stated he was “deeply sorry” that the previous few minutes had unfolded and was visibly moved. The choice covers “unreduced” coal, ie an exemption for coal when mixed with carbon seize and storage.

The commitments made in Glasgow will disappoint many local weather activists as a result of they didn’t put the world on observe to chop emissions by nearly half by 2030, the path necessary to limit the warming to 1.5C.

Consultants stated it was a superb end result for a summit nonetheless and a case of too excessive expectations. It isn’t sufficient. However it’s a course of. I’d have appreciated Glasgow to resolve the issue, however it would not and it was by no means going to do it, Stark says. A path to a 1.5C future is now hanging by a thread however continues to be there, which is unbelievable, ”he provides.

Michael Jacobs of the College of Sheffield, who was beforehand an adviser to former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, stated most nations might obtain at COP26 was to confess their 2030 plans weren’t adequate and to agree to return again subsequent yr with a greater line-up. at a trajectory of 1.5C. “They did it,” he says.

Cash forged a giant shadow on the highest, after emerged that wealthy nations wouldn’t maintain their pledge of $ 100 billion in funding per yr to the poorest nations earlier than 2023, three years delayed. International locations expressed deep remorse that solely about $ 80 billion was delivered in 2019, of which 1 / 4 for adaptation to local weather change. In addition they agreed to develop a brand new plan over the following three years for what a future local weather finance goal would appear like past 2025.

Adaptation was a key subject that was on the agenda in Glasgow, having been largely overshadowed by emission reductions at earlier UN local weather summits. This time round, developed nations agreed that by 2025 they need to double adaptation funding to round $ 40 billion per yr.

The convention didn’t settle for a proposal from a gaggle of 77 growing nations and China, which referred to as for a brand new fund for the closely loaded loss and harm subject. This is able to have been step one in direction of some type of monetary compensation from richer nations to poorer nations for excessive climate situations and different climatic impacts equivalent to sea degree rise. Nonetheless, the nations pledged to proceed to speak about financing the losses and damages related to the antagonistic results of local weather change.

The nations additionally reached settlement on technical however necessary guidelines on the Paris Settlement which have proved intractable within the six years because the adoption of the primary complete international local weather treaty. Chief amongst these are the foundations governing a brand new international carbon market beneath Article 6 of the Paris Settlement, paving the way in which for a successor to an previous system referred to as the United Nations Clear Growth Mechanism.

Different excellent parts within the Paris settlement have been ironed out, together with “frequent timelines” for when nations subject new carbon targets. It is going to be each 5 years for a brand new goal 10 years later, so 2025 for 2035, and so forth. Transparency guidelines on reporting emission reductions have additionally been resolved.

The ultimate selections have been made by COP26 President Alok Sharma this night after practically a fortnight of talks in Glasgow. This official endorsement adopted for 3 hours delegates from many nations itemizing their blended emotions on the ultimate deal: “It isn’t excellent… however it represents actual progress,” stated Tina Stege of the Marshall Islands. The negotiators had been working in a single day for a number of days in a row.

Earlier within the summit, nations struck a sequence of voluntary aspect agreements on halting deforestation, halting worldwide funding for coal, blocking new oil and fuel initiatives, and decreasing methane, a fuel short-lived however highly effective greenhouse impact.

The convention started with 120 world leaders, together with US President Joe Biden and Indian President Narendra Modi, who introduced that India would obtain web zero emissions by 2070. A number of different nations, together with Australia and the Saudi Arabia, have additionally declared long-term web zero targets. on the eve of COP26, which signifies that round 90% of worldwide emissions at the moment are lined by a goal of web zero. The change in long-term outlook has been fairly dramatic, Stark says.

The nations have agreed that subsequent yr’s UN local weather summit might be held in Egypt.

Extra on these subjects:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

9 + twelve =

Back to top button